DESCRIPTIVE

The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text (Definisi dan Tujuan Deskriptive Teks)
Descriptive text is a text which say what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing. (Deskriptif teks adalah sebuah teks yang menggambarkan orang atau sesuatu. Tujuan umumnya adalah untuk menggambarkan orang, benda, atau sesuatu).
The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text (Struktur Umum)
Descriptive text has structure as below:
Identification
identifying the phenomenon to be described.
(mengidentifikasi sebuah fenomena yang ingin di gambarkan)
Description
describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics.
Menggambarkan Phenomena dalam beberapa bagian, kualitas atau karakter.
The Language Feature of Descriptive Text (Ciri kebahasaan)
- Menggunakan attributive and identifying process.
- menggunakan adjective and classifiers in nominal group.
- menggunakan simple present tense
Example / Contoh:
The Amazing Taj Mahal In India
Identification
Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world. It was built by a Muslim Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his dear wife at Agra.
Description
Taj Mahal is a Mausoleum that houses the grave of queen Mumtaz Mahal. The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to the right), and several other palatial buildings. The Taj is at the farthest end of this complex, with the river Jamuna behind it.
The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the principles of self-replicating geometry and a symmetry of architectural elements.
Its central dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter and rises to a height of 213 feet. It is flanked by four subsidiary domed chambers. The four graceful, slender minarets are 162.5 feet each. The central domed chamber and four adjoining chambers include many walls and panels of Islamic decoration.
Taj Mahal is built entirely of white marble. Its stunning architectural beauty is beyond adequate description, particularly at dawn and sunset. The Taj seems to glow in the light of the full moon. On a foggy morning, the visitors experience the Taj as if suspended when viewed from across the Jamuna river.


Teks deskriptif ( descriptive text ) adalah teks yang mendeskripsikan atau menggambarkan bentuk, ciri atau sifat benda, hewan, tumbuh-tumbuhan, manusia atau peristiwatertentu yang khusus, misalnya seekor jerapah yang hidup di kebun binatang Ragunan, bunga melati di halaman rumahku, atau Dodi temanku yang paling gemuk.
Descriptive text memiliki kerangka atau struktur ( generic structure ) sebagai berikut.
1. Identification: memperkenalkan benda, hewan, tumbuhan, atauseseorang yang akan dideskripsikan. Misalnya:
  1. Mr. Pambudi, my new neighbor, is a well-known veterinarian in our city.
  2. One of the most beautiful houses in my village is Mr. Raman’s.
  3. Gembira Loka zoo is the most interesting zoo in Yogyakarta and has the most complete collection of animals in Java.
2. Description: menceritakan bagian per bagian dari objek yang kita deskripsikan,misalnya penggambaran dimulai dengan menceritakan bentuk fisiknya, kemudian ciri-ciri khusus, kualitas, sifat, dan tingkah laku benda, hewan, tumbuhan, atau seseorang yang dideskripsikan.
Penting untuk diperhatikan bahwa descriptive text memiliki bentuk dan ciri yang hampir sama dengan report text. Descriptive text menceritakan sesuatu atau objek yang sifatnya khusus (specific) sedangkan report text menceritakan sesuatu atau objek yang sifatnya umum (general).
Untuk membedakan sifat khusus dan umum, mari kita perhatikan contoh di bawah ini.
Deskripsi secara khusus (specific) untuk descriptive text
- Saya mempunyai dua buah pesawat televisi. Salah satunya adalah hadiah ulang tahun dari Paman. Ia membelinya dari Singapura. TV tersebut berlayar datar dan bisa merekam acara-acara yang saya gemari.
Pada contoh di atas saya hanya menceritakan TV saya yang baru hadiah dari Paman. Saya tidak bercerita tentan TV yang lain atau TV-TV pada umumnya.
Deskripsi secara umum (general) untuk report text
Televisi atau TV adalah alat komunikasi canggih yang berbentuk gambar dan suara yang menyiarkan informasi dari seluruh dunia dan masuk ke jutaan rumah.
Pada contoh di atas saya menceritakan televisi secara umum. Oleh karena itu, report text biasanya dibuka dengan sebuah paragraf yang merupakan sebuah definisi. Sekarang lebih jelas, bukan? Itulah perbedaan antara descriptive text denganreport text.
Oke, kita kembali ke topic descriptive text.
Tujuan (the purpose) descriptive text ialah memberikan informasi atau gambaran benda, hewan, tumbuhan, atau seseorang yang dideskripsikan secara khusus.
Kata kerja (tense) yang digunakan biasanya present simple tense. Akan tetapi bisa jugamenggunakan past simple tense, jika benda yang dideskripsikan sudah tidak ada.
Untuk lebih jelas, perhatikan contoh descriptive text di bawah ini! (paragraf berwarna biru adalah identification sedangkan paragraf berwarna merah adalah description)


get the purpose from the text above that description is used in all forms of writing to create a vivid impression of a person, place, object or event e.g. to: ·
  • Describe a special place and explain why it is special.
  • Describe the most important person in your live.
  • Describe the animal’s habit in your report.
Descriptive writing or text is usually also used to help writer develop an aspect of their work, e.g. to create a particular mood, atmosphere or describe a place so that the reader can create vivid pictures of characters, places, objects etc. To complete our intention to, here are the characteristics based on descriptive writing or text, below;
As a feature, description is a style of writing which can be useful for other variety of purposes as:
  • To engage a reader’s attention
  • To create characters
  • To set a mood or create an atmosphere
  • To being writing to life
While in language function, descriptive writing;
  • Aims to show rather than tell the reader what something/someone is like
  • Relies on precisely chosen vocabulary with carefully chosen adjectives and adverbs.
  • Is focused and concentrates only on the aspects that add something to the main purpose of the description.
  • Sensory description-what is heard, seen, smelt, felt, tasted.Precise use of adjectives, similes, metaphors to create images/pictures in the mind e.g. their noses were met with the acrid smell of rotting flesh.
  • Strong  development of the experience that “put the reader there” focuses on key details, powerful verbs and precise nouns.
Beyond the characteristics stated on, descriptive writing also consists of generic structure in range as:
  1. General statement
  2. Explanation
  3. Closing
The description text has dominant language features as follows:
  1. Using Simple Present Tense
  2. Using action verbs
  3. Using passive voice
  4. Using noun phrase
  5. Using adverbial phrase
  6. Using technical terms
  7. Using general and abstract noun
  8. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.






CONTOH-CONTOH DESCRIPTIVE TEXT



Borobudur Temple

Borobudur is Hindu – Budhist temple. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.

Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three are circular. 

Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4.8 km of passage and starways. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor, Cambodia.
Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people.



Singapore

Have you ever visited Singapore? Well, if you haven’t, let me tell you about Singapore. Singapore is an island city. Its population is about three millions people. Most Singaporeans live in high-rise apartments.
Uhm…Singapore is a beautiful city with lots of parks and open spaces. It is also a very clean city. You know, the business district is very modern, with lots of tall and new buildings.
Now, let me tell you about the old section of the city. In Chinatown, there are rows of old shop houses. The government buildings in Singapore are also very unique and antique. They date from the British colonial days.
Shopping! Wow, this is the part that I like very much! Singapore is famous for its many good shopping centers. Most of the goods are duty free. It’s a heaven for shoppers!
What about food? Uhmm ..yummy..yummy. It’s delicious. Singapore’s restaurants provide Chinese, Indian, Malay, and European food, and the prices are quite reasonable. I bet you’ll like it.
Well, since Singapore lies near the equatorial line, of course, it has a tropical climate, with a nice weather in both dry and rainy season.




Easter Island

Easter Island is in the South Pacific, 3,700 kilometres from the coast of Chile. On the island, there are 600 large statues. We don’t know who built them but they were probably constructed between 1150 and 1500. We don’t really know why they are there. The Easter Island.

Norwegian explorer, Thor Heyerdahl, believed that they were built by people from South America. To prove this, he made a simple raft and sailed there, all the way from Peru.

Archaeologists think that the statues represent dead tribal leaders. We don’t know why the statues left alone on the island. Perhaps they were killed by disease or war. Perhaps the builders used all the natural resources on the island. There are many unanswered questions about Easter Island.






JATIM PARK

For people in East Java, Jatim Park may have been heard many times as it is one of the famous tourism object in East Java province. Jatim Park offers a recreation place as well as a study center.

Jatim Park is located at Jl. Kartika 2 Batu, East Java. To reach the location is not too difficult because the object is only 2, 5 kilos meters from Batu city. This Jatim Park tourism object is about 22 hectares width.

Visitor can enjoy at least 36 kinds of facilities which can attract them as well as give new knowledge. Just after the pass gate, the visitors will find an interesting view of ‘Galeri Nusantara’ area. This study offering continues to step on ‘Taman Sejarah’ area, which contains of miniature temple in East Java like Sumberawan temple, customhouse of Kiai Hasan Besari Ponorogo and Sumberawan Statue.

The other facility which is able to be enjoyed is ‘Agro Park’ area. It presents crop and rareness fruits, animal diorama which consists of unique animals that have been conserved, and supporting games like bowling, throw ball, scooter disco, etc

Jatim Park is suitable for family and school recreation. The recreation area sites offer precious tour and can used as alternative media of study.




FACTS ABOUT THE MOON

Moon is the earth's satellite which we often see in the night. The Moon is the one place in our solar system where humans have visited. For the firs time on July 20, 1969, astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin landed the Lunar Module of Apollo 11 on the surface of the Moon. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the Moon. However do you know what descriptive facts about the Moon are?

The moon rises in the east and sets in the west. It moves toward the east in our sky by about 12 degrees each day. The Moon is about 384,400 kilometers from Earth. The Moon has a diameter of 2,000 miles which is like to 3,476 kilometers.

The surface of the Moon has many things, such as craters, lava plains, mountains, and valleys. Scientists believe the craters were formed around 3.5 to 4.5 billion years ago by meteors hitting the moon's surface. The Moon does not have atmosphere, wind and weather that is why the footprints left there on the Moon by the Apollo astronauts will remain there for millions of years.

The Moon is not a light source. It mean that Moon does not make its own light. It reflects light from the sun. All of us can can see the Moon dspecially in the night because light from the Sun bounces off it back to the Earth. If the Sun wasn't there, we can not see the Moon.

The moon influences many of the tides in the oceans. This is because of the gravity force between the Earth and Moon. At full Moon and new Moon, the Sun, Earth and Moon are lined up, producing the higher than normal tides. When the Moon is at first or last quarter, it forms smaller neap tides.



CLEOPATRA

One of the most famous women in world history was Cleopatra VII. She was the brilliant and beautiful last Pharaoh of Egypt. Historically, she became queen of Egypt in 51 B.C. at the age of eighteen. She was a Ptolemy, descended from one of Alexander the Great's generals. When she was twenty-one, Julius Caesar became her lover. Seven years later she met Antony. The romantic tragic relationship continued until they died by suicide in 30 B.C.

Cleopatra was legendary. She was famous not only for her breathtaking beauty but also for her great intellect. She had brown eyes and they were shaped like cat eyes. Her skin was in fact an olive shade, darker than Hollywood actress Liz Taylor who potrayed her in the film 'Cleopatra' in 1963. She had medium dark brown hair, about to the middle of her shoulder blades. She had a reputation as an extraordinarily sensuous woman.

Cleopatra was a woman of remarkable poise and unusual intelligence. She was highly educated. She spoke proficiently in nine languages and also skilled in mathematics. She is often considered to be a stunning seductress though she was studying to be a nun. Cleopatra was a very intelligent queen and a politician with a great charisma.



TAJ MAHAL

Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world. It was built by a Muslim Emperor Shah Jahan in the memory of his dear wife at Agra.

Taj Mahal is a Mausoleum that houses the grave of queen Mumtaz Mahal. The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to the right), and several other palatial buildings. The Taj is at the farthest end of this complex, with the river Jamuna behind it.

The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186 x 186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the principles of self-replicating geometry and a symmetry of architectural elements.

Its central dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter and rises to a height of 213 feet. It is flanked by four subsidiary domed chambers. The four graceful, slender minarets are 162.5 feet each. The central domed chamber and four adjoining chambers include many walls and panels of Islamic decoration.
Taj Mahal is built entirely of white marble. Its stunning architectural beauty is beyond adequate description, particularly at dawn and sunset. The Taj seems to glow in the light of the full moon. On a foggy morning, the visitors experience the Taj as if suspended when viewed from across the Jamuna river. 

  • Digg
  • Del.icio.us
  • StumbleUpon
  • Reddit
  • RSS

0 komentar:

Poskan Komentar